When Hai overheard her mother-in-law telling her husband to have an extramarital affair so he could have a son, she decided to take action. Hai, already mother to two daughters, suggested to her husband that she underwent IVF treatment. The timing was crucial. Their offspring will be born under the sign of the golden dragon which, for men, is the most auspicious animal in the Chinese zodiac. Hai went to Bangkok with two other couples, both seeking IVF treatment to have baby boys born in this year. The sign is especially cherished because it only comes around every 60 years. Many believe that men born under the golden dragon will be wealthier, have better jobs and be more successful, says Professor Vu Dung, director of the Institute of Psychology in Hanoi.
Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The participants described ultrasound as a central tool in prenatal care, although they called for increased training and resources to prevent inappropriate management. A prevailing overuse driven by women's request and increased commercialisation was described. Other clinical examinations were seen as being disregarded by women in favour of ultrasound, resulting in missed opportunities for identifying potential pregnancy complications. The use of ultrasound for sex selection purposes raised concern among participants.